What is the local economic impact of protected areas creation and management? Protected areas are commonly considered barriers to economic development because they impose limits or even completely block the use of natural resources. However, this study demonstrated that 10 protected areas located up to 200 km from Manaus city in the Brazilian Amazon provide an source of important income for the local economy. In some situations, these incomes can even surpass earnings generated by land uses such as cattle ranching. The study also found that in the case of the Manaus, the economic activity generated by protected areas - mostly in the form of local spending and employment for research and protection activities - was paid for by money originating outside the region and even outside Brazil. That means there is a real net addition to economic activity in the region and not just a transfer of resources from within the area.